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Olives: Nutrition and health benefits

Olives are popular as both a snack and an ingredient in salads, sandwiches, and stews. They have a chewy texture and a rich, salty taste.

People have cultivated olive trees for more than 7,000 years, and they have long associated its fruit with health benefits.

There are hundreds of olive species, and these fruits and their oil form an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which may help people prevent disease and live longer.

In this article, learn about the possible health benefits of olives as well as their nutritional content and how to use them.

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Are olives good for you? Different types of olives in oil in wooden bowl
Eating olives can help improve cardiovascular health. Olives and olive oil have a long history of reported health benefits, and there is a growing body of scientific evidence to back up these claims. Olive oil, which manufacturers make by crushing olive fruits and then separating the oil from the pulp, plays a key role in the Mediterranean diet. Olives are low in cholesterol and a good source of dietary fiber, which the body needs for good gut health. They are also rich in iron and copper. Research shows that following the diet can help people live longer. One study of almost 26,000 women found that the Mediterranean diet could cut the risk of developing cardiovascular disease by up to 28% compared with a control diet. The Mediterranean diet involves a daily intake of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the diet eat fish and lean meat in moderation but limit red and processed meats to 2–3 portions per month. The diet also emphasizes swapping unhealthful fats, such as the trans fats and saturated fats that are present in butter and margarine, with healthful fats, such as the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats that are in olives and olive oil. Olives are a good source of oleate, which is a monounsaturated fatty acid. A 2016 study found that eating more monosaturated fat reduced the risk of premature death due to disease compared with eating more carbohydrates. The American Heart Foundation also state that monounsaturated fats can have a beneficial effect on heart health when a person consumes them in moderation. Virgin olive oil is also high in a type of antioxidant called polyphenols, which can help prevent diseases relating to the heart and blood vessels. Some people believe that these antioxidants can slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and even cancer. However, more studies are necessary to confirm these claims. It is worth noting that food producers usually preserve olives in brine, which has a high salt content. Over time, excess levels of salt in the body can lead to high blood pressure, heart attacks, and stroke, so people should eat olives in moderation. Nutritional content of different types of olive Olives and Mediterranean food in buffet
Olives have a high fat content. The nutritional content of 100 grams (g) of ripe, canned black olives is as follows: Macronutrients: energy: 116 calories protein: 0.84 g total fat: 10.90 g carbohydrate: 6.04 g fiber: 1.60 g Minerals: calcium: 88 milligrams (mg) iron: 6.28 mg magnesium: 4 mg potassium: 8 mg sodium: 735 mg zinc: 0.22 mg copper: 0.25 mg Vitamins: vitamin C: 0.90 mg niacin: 0.04 mg vitamin B-6: 0.01 mg vitamin A: 17 micrograms (µg) vitamin E: 1.65 mg vitamin K: 1.4 µg The nutritional content of 100 g of canned or bottled green olives is as follows: Macronutrients: energy: 145 calories protein: 1.03 g total fat: 15.32 g carbohydrate: 3.84 g fiber: 3.30 g Minerals: calcium: 52 mg iron: 0.49 mg magnesium: 11 mg potassium: 42 mg sodium: 1,556 mg zinc: 0.04 mg copper: 0.12 mg Vitamins: niacin: 0.24 mg vitamin B-6: 0.03 mg folate: 3 µg vitamin A: 20 µg vitamin E: 3.81 mg vitamin K: 1.4 µg A tablespoon of standard olive oil contains the following nutrients, among others: energy: 119 calories total fat: 13.5 g (including 9.85 g monounsaturated fatty acids, 1.42 g polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 1.86 g saturated fatty acids) iron: 0.08 mg vitamin E: 1.94 mg vitamin K: 8.13 µg How to use Woman pouring olive oil onto salad
A person can benefit from olive oil by adding it to salads and vegetables. People can add olives and extra virgin olive oil to all manner of foods, including salad, raw or roasted vegetables, and whole-grain pasta. Mild-flavored variants of extra virgin olive oil can replace butter or other oils in baking. People can also cook with olive oil. While olives and olive oil contain plenty of useful nutrients, people should consume them in moderation as part of a balanced diet. Olive oil is high in fat, and the preservation process means that olives are often high in salt. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary Generations of people have enjoyed olives and olive oil for their health-promoting qualities. Olives are low in cholesterol and a good source of dietary fiber, which the body needs for good gut health. They are also high in minerals that the body requires to function, such as iron and copper. However, it is best to consume olives in moderation, as producers usually preserve them in brine that is high in salt. Olive oil is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which can help people maintain a healthy weight, prevent heart disease, and live longer. The diet includes foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fats, which are healthful fats that can benefit heart health. Olives are available for purchase in grocery stores, at food markets, and online. We picked linked items based on the quality of products, and list the pros and cons of each to help you determine which will work best for you. We partner with some of the companies that sell these products, which means Healthline UK and our partners may receive a portion of revenues if you make a purchase using a link(s) above.
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What is the link between asthma and pneumonia?

Asthma and pneumonia are two respiratory conditions. They share some symptoms, but they have different causes and treatments. Pneumonia may be more difficult to detect in people with asthma.

Asthma does not directly cause pneumonia, but people with a history of chronic respiratory problems, such as asthma, could have a higher risk of developing pneumonia.

In this article, we look at the link between asthma and pneumonia, explore symptoms and diagnoses, and discuss the differences between these conditions in children and adults.

What are asthma and pneumonia? asthma and pneumonia inhaler
Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and tightening of the chest.

Asthma and pneumonia are conditions that affect the lungs.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that results in narrowing and inflammation of the bronchiole airways.

Symptoms come and go over time and in response to triggers. They vary from person to person, but they often include:

difficulty breathing tightening of the chest coughing

Wheezing and coughing tend to occur during an asthma attack, making breathing more difficult.

Triggers of an asthma attack include but are not limited to:

typical allergens, such as pet dander, pollen, mold, and dust chemical fumes smoke air pollution cold, dry weather exercise

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses. It can affect one or both lungs.

Bacterial pneumonia is by far the most common type of pneumonia in adults.

Like asthma, pneumonia causes lung inflammation, though it affects the air sacs — called alveoli — at the end of the bronchiole airways. An accumulation of pus or fluid in the air sacs makes breathing difficult.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today What is the link? Asthma does not directly cause pneumonia, but people with chronic lung problems are more likely to develop pneumonia, due to previous lung damage or weakness in lung tissue. For the same reason, a person with asthma may have more severe symptoms and complications from colds and the flu. The flu can lead to pneumonia and, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Adults and children with asthma are more likely to develop pneumonia after getting sick with flu than people who do not have asthma." Some researchers believe that asthma medications may play a role. One study suggests that inhaled corticosteroids — a main treatment option for asthma — might increase the risk of developing pneumonia or other respiratory infections. Furthermore, some research indicates that young adults with asthma might experience "excess exacerbations" of the condition following pneumonia. The authors reported that the study group had made more frequent asthma-related hospital visits after having pneumonia. Symptoms of pneumonia in people with asthma asthma and pneumonia fever and chills
A person with asthma and pneumonia may develop a fever and chills. The symptoms of asthma and pneumonia can be similar, which can make pneumonia difficult for doctors to spot. Both asthma and pneumonia can cause: chest pain shortness of breath an increased respiratory rate an increased pulse coughing wheezing However, the conditions can also cause different symptoms. A person with asthma who suspects that they have pneumonia should look for: mucus in their cough a fever chest pain while coughing a crackling sound when they try to breathe in If any of these symptoms are present, see a doctor. A typical asthma flare-up involves coughing, wheezing, and a feeling of tightness in the chest. A decrease in lung function results in difficulty breathing and an increased pulse. The wheezing may be high-pitched and whistling. Uncomfortable asthma symptoms can last from a few minutes to several hours. Symptoms may flare up suddenly, and some people call these episodes asthma attacks. When a person has pneumonia, the initial symptoms may be similar to those of a typical cold or flu. As the lung infection evolves, green, yellow, or bloody mucus may accompany coughing. Common symptoms of pneumonia include, but are not limited to: headaches tiredness a loss of appetite shortness of breath clammy skin fever and chills chest pain that worsens with coughing or breathing Pneumonia can also cause a crackling sound while breathing. When pneumonia results from a virus, symptoms tend to include muscle pain and a dry cough from the very beginning. As the infection continues, the cough tends to worsen, and a person may produce mucus. When pneumonia is caused by bacteria, a person may have a high fever. Fevers of this degree come with their own side effects, including delirium and confusion. In severe cases of pneumonia, the lips or nail beds might turn blue as a result of a lack of oxygen. Complications of pneumonia in people with asthma asthma and pneumonia doctor
People with asthma and pneumonia should seek treatment as early as possible. If a person does not receive treatment, asthma and pneumonia can be life-threatening respiratory diseases. While asthma has no cure, symptoms tend to respond well to monitoring and appropriate treatments. In some cases, a person can recover from pneumonia within a week, while in others it may take at least a month. Because inflammation in the lungs can lead to an asthma attack, the airway dysfunction related to pneumonia can bring on a serious attack and cause severe complications. As bacteria or viruses replicate inside lung tissue, the body's natural immune defenses begin to flood the lungs with mucus. This makes breathing more difficult, and it causes a person to cough. The mucus blocks the airways, which constrict in response to inflammation, causing a lack of oxygen exchange in the body. As a result, the lungs must exert more effort, which can worsen chest pain. It is best to treat asthma and pneumonia as early as possible to prevent the conditions from worsening. Difference between asthma and pneumonia The main difference is that asthma is a chronic, noninfectious condition, whereas pneumonia is a lung infection. Asthma causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways. It mainly affects the bronchioles, which are the tiny branches of the airways in the lungs. Asthma is not a curable disease, though a person can manage its symptoms with the right medications. Asthma triggers can lessen over time and as a person learns to manage their illness. Pneumonia is an infection that can occur in one or both of the lungs. It causes inflammation in the air sacs, not the bronchioles. Pneumonia can cause the lungs to fill with fluid, making breathing painful and difficult. It is treatable. While asthma and pneumonia can cause many similar symptoms, they are different diseases with different treatment and care approaches. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary It is important for people with asthma to understand the link with pneumonia. While one condition does not cause the other, people with asthma are more likely to develop pneumonia. If this happens, they have a greater risk of complications. Early treatment and preventive techniques are key to reducing the risk of these complications.
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What to do in the event of a heart attack

Learning to recognize warning signs and risk factors can help people avoid a heart attack. When a person has a heart attack, knowing what to do and acting quickly can help them have a better outcome.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person has a heart attack every 40 seconds in the United States.

A heart attack occurs when there is a blockage of blood flow to the heart. When a blockage to blood flow occurs, it can damage or even kill parts of the heart tissue.

While the movies may depict heart attacks as happening suddenly, many heart attacks begin slowly and have many warning signs.

Signs and symptoms MAn experiencing heart attack sitting in chair holding shoulder and arm in pain.
A heart attack may cause pain in both shoulders and arms.

The main heart attack symptoms include the following:

Chest pain or discomfort: The chest pain or discomfort may feel like pressure, tightness, or a squeezing sensation. Shortness of breath: This may occur with or without chest pain. Discomfort in other parts of the body: The back, both arms and shoulders, neck, or jaw may also be uncomfortable during a heart attack.

While both males and females may experience the primary heart attack signs and symptoms, the symptoms we have listed above are more common in males.

Females are more likely to experience additional signs and symptoms. These include:

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today What to do A heart attack is a life-threatening medical emergency. If someone may be having a heart attack, a person should immediately call 911 for emergency help before doing anything else. Acting quickly can help save someone's life. If a person is having a heart attack, calling 911 is often a better course of action than taking the individual to the emergency room. Paramedics typically reach a person faster than they can get to the emergency room themselves. Additionally, when paramedics arrive, they can begin lifesaving treatment immediately. If the individual having the heart attack is unconscious, someone with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training should begin CPR. If a defibrillator is available and someone knows how to use it, they should use the defibrillator after performing CPR if necessary. If you are alone If a person is alone and experiencing any symptoms of a heart attack, they should immediately call 911. Next, they should take aspirin if available, and unlock their door, so that paramedics have access. Then they should lay down near the door but not blocking it, to make it easy for paramedics to find them. Causes and risk factors Having high blood pressure can increase the risk of heart attacks.
Having high blood pressure can increase the risk of a heart attack. A person should be aware of their risk factors so they can take steps to prevent a heart attack. There are some heart attack risk factors that people can influence and others that they cannot. Heart attack risk factors that people cannot influence include: Age: While heart disease affects people of all ages, according to the American Heart Association (AHA) the most of those who die from coronary heart disease are adults over 65 years of age. Sex: Males are more likely than females to have and die of a heart attack. Family history: People with a significant family history of heart disease are more likely to experience a heart attack. Race and ethnicity: Some ethnic groups, including African Americans, some Asians, and Mexican Americans, are more likely to have a heart attack than others. While people cannot influence the above risk factors, there are many risk factors that they can modify or treat to prevent a heart attack. Modifiable risk factors for heart disease and heart attack include: Prevention Limiting alcohol intake can help reduce the risk of heart attacks.
Limiting alcohol intake can help reduce the risk of a heart attack. The best way to prevent a heart attack is to reduce any risk factors. People can reduce their chances of a heart attack by: losing weight if they are obese or overweight treating high blood pressure and high cholesterol by consulting a doctor controlling diabetes through diet, medication, and managing blood sugar eating a diet rich in fresh vegetables and fruits and low in saturated fats and processed foods stopping smoking or using tobacco products limiting alcohol consumption to no more than two drinks a day for men or one per day for women getting at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity per week Additionally, a person should have regular checkups with their doctor. Regular checkups can help identify new risk factors for heart disease that a person may develop and monitor any existing ones they have. Summary Heart attacks are life-threatening medical emergencies that require immediate medical help. Knowing the signs and symptoms of a heart attack can help a person get the help they need as early as possible. Reducing risk factors for heart disease can help a person prevent a heart attack.
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How a fruit compound may lower blood pressure

Blueberries, red grapes, red wine, and peanuts are some of the natural sources of resveratrol — a plant compound that has received much attention in the medical community recently. New research in mice and human cells breaks down the mechanism through which resveratrol may lower blood pressure.
close up of woman's hands washing fruit
Red grapes and some blueberries contain resveratrol.

From protecting our neurons against aging to potentially preventing cancer, a significant number of studies have recently hailed the health benefits of resveratrol.

Also, a lot of previous research has focused on the benefits of resveratrol for heart health.

Clinical studies in rats and mice have demonstrated protective effects against stroke, heart failure, and hypertension, among other heart conditions.

Although some researchers believe that the benefits of resveratrol come from its antioxidant properties, the mechanisms behind its cardioprotective effects remain unclear.

New research gets closer to understanding these mechanisms, and the findings are an intriguing paradox.

A team of scientists from King's College London (KCL), in the United Kingdom, added resveratrol to the diet of mice with high blood pressure. Joseph Burgoyne, Ph.D., a senior lecturer in cardiovascular sciences at KCL, is the lead author of the study, which appears in the journal Circulation.

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The effects of resveratrol in mice

Burgoyne and the team induced high blood pressure in a group of wild-type mice. The researchers measured the rodent's blood pressure with implanted telemetry probes and monitored this for 15 days.

During this time, they fed the mice either a diet to which they had added resveratrol or a normal diet.

By the end of the study period, the researchers noted a drop of about 20 millimeters of mercury in the blood pressure of mice that had consumed resveratrol. The scientists also discovered that resveratrol relaxed the rodents' blood vessels by oxidizing the protein PKG1a.

"Resveratrol mediates lowering of blood pressure by paradoxically inducing protein oxidation, especially during times of oxidative stress, a mechanism that may be a common feature of 'antioxidant' molecules," conclude the authors.

The findings are counterintuitive, in the sense that the compound is believed to be an antioxidant, but this study shows that it behaves like an oxidant in order to lower blood pressure.

"We're slowly realizing that oxidants aren't always the villain. Our research shows that a molecule once deemed an antioxidant exerts its beneficial effects through oxidation. We think that many other so-called 'antioxidants' might also work in this way."

Joseph Burgoyne, Ph.D.

What do the findings mean for humans?

Importantly, the researchers were able to replicate the findings in human cell lines. Specifically, they applied resveratrol to smooth muscle cells taken from human blood vessels and noticed the same oxidization process.

However, the scientists caution against the interpretation that people should consume a lot of resveratrol-containing products in order to reap the same benefits that this study showcased in mice.

People should avoid red wine, in particular, the researchers warn. To recreate the benefits of the study in humans, say Burgoyne and colleagues, a person would have to consume 1,000 bottles of red wine every day. The compound is not very soluble, which is why high amounts of it are necessary.

"Our work could lay the foundations for chemically altering resveratrol to improve its delivery to the body," the study's lead author explains, "or designing new, more potent drugs which use the same pathway. In the future, we could have a whole new class of blood pressure drugs."

Metin Avkiran, Ph.D., a professor of molecular cardiology at KCL — who was not involved in the study — also comments on the significance of the findings.

"Unfortunately, this isn't the all-clear to open a bottle of merlot. To get the human equivalent dose of resveratrol used here, you'd need to drink an impossible amount of red wine every day."

Prof. Metin Avkiran, Ph.D.

"This study reveals the surprising way in which resveratrol works and opens up the possibility of new blood pressure drugs which work in a similar way," Prof. Avkiran adds. "The findings bring us a step closer to tackling this 'silent killer' which puts people at risk of having a devastating stroke or heart attack."

In the United States, over 100 million people are currently living with hypertension.

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What is the most healthful oil for frying?

How healthful an oil is to cook with mostly depends on how it reacts when heated. Generally, olive oil, avocado oil, and canola oil are healthful for cooking with.

Oil reaches its smoking point once it starts to smoke and break down. Once it passes the smoking point, it releases free radicals that can cause damage to cells in the body.

Oils with high smoke points may be more stable and more healthful to cook with than those with low smoke points. The stability of an oil depends on how tightly packed the fatty acids in them are. The more tightly packed, the harder they are to break apart when heated.

Saturated and monounsaturated fats are the most stable oils to cook with. Higher levels of saturation in oil mean that it is more resistant to oxidization, the process wherein the acids break apart.

Polyunsaturated oils contain short-chain fatty acids and break apart more easily when heated, releasing more free radicals. Polyunsaturated oils are best to use unheated, such as by drizzling them over food or using them in dressings.

In this article, we take a look at the oils most healthful for deep frying, shallow frying, and roasting, along with other things to consider when choosing a cooking oil.

Most healthful oils for deep frying temperature gauge and oil in a pan
Extra virgin olive oil and coconut oil may be the most suitable oils for deep frying.

One study found that extra virgin olive oil and coconut oil were two of the most stable oils. The researchers heated 3 liters of oil in a deep fryer at 356°F (180°C) for 6 hours. This suggests that they may be the most suitable oils for deep frying.

Olive oil has anti-inflammatory properties and is high in antioxidants and fatty acids. This makes it a more stable oil when heated at high temperatures.

Coconut oil comprises 92% saturated fat, and its resistance to oxidization makes it a stable cooking oil. One study showed that coconut oil was still stable after 8 hours of deep frying.

Due to its high saturated fat content, it is best to use coconut oil in moderation. Research has suggested that coconut oil raises both high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good," and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad," cholesterol levels more than unsaturated oils but less than butter.

The same review suggested that coconut oil may not be suitable for deep frying, however, due to its low smoke point. As a result, it may be better for shallow frying.

There are also studies that suggest that smoke point may not be the most important factor in the safety of oils when heated.

The authors of a 2018 study suggest that oxidative stability is more important than smoke point when looking at how healthful cooking oils are. In this study, coconut oil had high stability after heating.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Most healthful oils for shallow frying Shallow frying<!--mce:protected %0A-->
Avocado oil is good for shallow frying. Along with coconut oil and olive oil, avocado oil is a good oil to use for shallow frying. Avocado oil contains high levels of monounsaturated fat, which means that it stays fairly stable when heated. Avocado oil raises the levels of good cholesterol in the body and lowers the bad. It also contains vitamin E, which is an antioxidant that may help reduce free radicals in the body. People can use sunflower oil for shallow frying. It has a high smoke point and is also a good source of vitamin E. Sunflower oil contains high levels of omega-6, however. Consuming too many omega-6 fatty acids can cause inflammation in the body. As a result, it may be best to use sunflower oil in moderation. Canola oil is another oil with a high smoke point, making it suitable for shallow frying. Most healthful oils for roasting When choosing an oil to use for roasting, it may be best to choose one that has a high smoke point. Oils with relatively high smoke points include coconut oil, peanut oil, and sunflower oil. Olive oil is one of the more healthful oils, but its smoke point is slightly lower than that of the above oils. As a result, it may be best to use when roasting at a temperature lower than 374°F (190°C). Avocado oil has a similar stability to olive oil at that heat. Other healthful oils The following oils have fairly healthful nutrition profiles. Some are more suitable for use in cooking than others, however. Peanut oil Also called groundnut oil, peanut oil is high in monounsaturated fat, which makes it suitable for cooking. However, it does contain polyunsaturated fats as well. It also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Canola oil Canola oil is suitable for frying. Some research suggests that it can improve insulin sensitivity and help reduce cholesterol levels compared with other sources of fat. Flaxseed oil Flaxseed oil is full of omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential fats for the body, and which may help prevent health conditions such as heart disease. Flaxseed oil oxidizes easily, so it is best for drizzling over salads or food after cooking. It is best to keep it in a dark, airtight container in the fridge to prevent it from turning rancid. Considerations when choosing a cooking oil Oils that contain lower levels of linoleic acid, such as olive and canola oil, are better for frying. Polyunsaturated oils, such as corn, sunflower, and safflower, are best for using in dressings rather than cooking with. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that people choose oils containing less than 4 grams of saturated fat per tablespoon. They also advise people to avoid partially hydrogenated oils and trans fats. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Oils and fats to avoid Trans fats increase LDL, or "bad," cholesterol in the body and increase inflammation. This can increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. Trans fats are present in processed foods, such as some store-bought cakes, donuts, cookies, and fast foods. Commercial deep-fried foods may contain trans fats if the manufacturers have cooked them in partially hydrogenated oils. Trans fats also occur naturally in small amounts in animal fats, such as milk and meat. People should also avoid heating oils at or above 375°F (190.5°C), as this can increase the chances of a toxic compound called 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) building up. HNE can increase the risk of health conditions such as liver disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. HNE can start to build up after just one use, and reheating the same oil to a high temperature can cause HNE to accumulate even further. Healthful alternatives to using fats and oils man using spray oil
Spray oil is a healthful alternative. People can also cook many foods without using fats or oils. Some alternative options include using the following: a small amount of stock or water to fry or roast foods in nonstick pans a spray oil, which helps a person use less oil when cooking Using other liquids in cooking can add flavor and create an easy sauce for the dish, such as: cooking sherry wine tomato juice lemon juice milk vinegar Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary Oils high in monounsaturated fats are best for cooking with due to their stability when heated, as well as their potential health benefits. Examples include olive, avocado, and canola oil. Coconut oil is also a stable fat to cook with. It may be best to use it in moderation due to its high saturated fat content, however. Polyunsaturated oils are not suitable for cooking with due to their high rate of oxidization, but they could provide health benefits when a person uses them raw. It is best to avoid trans fats and high quantities of saturated fats, as these can increase the risk of health conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. The cooking oils in this article are available to purchase online. Shop for extra virgin olive oil. Shop for coconut oil. Shop for avocado oil. Shop for canola oil. Q: What is the most healthful method of frying? A: People can enjoy fried foods occasionally, but they should be mindful about a few things when they decide to indulge. Firstly, they should fry the foods in their own kitchen so they can control how much oil they use. Choose a fresh, clean, heart-healthy oil with a high smoke point, and stick to appropriate temperatures using a thermometer. Use little to no batter, and always drain excess oil. Finally, try to pair the fried food with a healthful side dish. Katherine Marengo LDN, RD Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice. We picked linked items based on the quality of products, and list the pros and cons of each to help you determine which will work best for you. We partner with some of the companies that sell these products, which means Healthline UK and our partners may receive a portion of revenues if you make a purchase using a link(s) above.
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How lack of sleep harms circulation

Scientists have long been aware of the relationship between insufficient sleep and poor cardiovascular health. However, exactly how the lack of adequate sleep can harm circulation has remained unclear. A new study now uncovers some of the potential mechanisms.
person unable to sleep
Sleeplessness impairs crucial mechanisms that keep cardiovascular problems at bay, shows a new study.

Having a good night's sleep, which amounts to an uninterrupted 7 hours of sleep or so per night, is crucial to maintaining good overall health. Poor sleep hygiene disrupts both short- and long-term health, according to evidence from numerous studies.

One aspect of health that a person's quality of sleep can influence is cardiovascular health. For example, research findings from the start of this year showed that sleeping for less than 6 hours per night rather than for 7–8 hours could increase a person's risk of atherosclerosis — a condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries — by as much as 27%.

Another study from this year explains how good sleep can help keep the arteries supple, thus maintaining good circulation.

Now, research from the University of Colorado Boulder has pinpointed a potential biological mechanism explaining the reverse of the medal — how lack of sleep affects circulation by promoting the buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries (atherogenesis), which can increase a person's risk of experiencing a stroke or heart attack.

The findings, which appear in the journal Experimental Physiology, tie sleeplessness to changes in the blood levels of micro RNA (miRNA), noncoding molecules that help regulate protein expression.

"This study proposes a new potential mechanism through which sleep influences heart health and overall physiology."

Senior author Prof. Christopher DeSouza

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How poor sleep promotes vascular problems

In the current study, the researchers collected blood samples from 24 healthy participants aged 44–62 years, who also provided information about their sleeping habits. Of the participants, 12 reported sleeping 7–8.5 hours per night, while the other 12 said that they only slept for 5–6.8 hours per night.

The team found that the participants who slept for less than 7 hours per night had blood levels of three key circulating miRNAs — miR-125A, miR-126, and miR-146a — that were 40–60% lower than those of their peers who slept for 7 or 8 hours. These three miRNAs, the researchers note, suppress the expression of proinflammatory proteins.

Having low levels of these molecules is problematic, because, as Prof. DeSouza explains, "[t]hey are like cellular brakes, so if beneficial microRNAs are lacking, that can have a big impact on the health of the cell."

In this case, insufficient circulating miR-125A, miR-126, and miR-146a could lead to vascular problems, including inflammation, as well as a higher risk of experiencing cardiovascular disease-related events, such as stroke or a heart attack.

Prof. DeSouza and his team had already found another worrying pattern in a previous study, for which they recruited adult men who slept for less than 6 hours each night. The study showed that the participants' endothelial cells — which make up the lining of blood vessels — did not function properly.

As a result, their blood vessels were unable to dilate and contract properly to allow blood to flow efficiently to different organs and parts of the body. This situation, Prof. DeSouza and colleagues have explained, poses another set of risks to cardiovascular health.

7 hours of sleep for cardiovascular health

"Why 7 or 8 hours [of sleep per night] seems to be the magic number [in maintaining health] is unclear," Prof. DeSouza admits.

"However," he continues, "it is plausible that people need at least 7 hours of sleep per night to maintain levels of important physiological regulators, such as microRNAs."

Commenting on the current findings, Prof. DeSouza argues that it may be possible to diagnose cardiovascular disease by performing blood tests. Laboratory technicians could assess a person's levels of circulating miRNAs and look for the presence of the atherogenic signature that the study has identified.

At present, the senior researcher and his team are working to find out whether improving a person's sleep habits can help reestablish healthy levels of important miRNAs in the blood.

In any case, Prof. DeSouza emphasizes that the findings of the recent study corroborate what sleep studies have been suggesting all along — that sleep quality influences unexpected aspects of health.

"Don't underestimate the importance of a good night's sleep," he stresses.

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What causes dizziness?

Dizziness refers to a range of sensations, such as feeling as though the room is spinning, lightheadedness, and feeling physically unsteady. Dizziness has many possible causes, which may relate to a person's external environment, the medications they take, or an underlying condition.

Recurring dizziness or severe dizzy spells can significantly interfere with a person's life. It rarely indicates a medical emergency, however. People can experience dizziness after:

spinning around quickly standing or sitting up too fast engaging in high-intensity exercise

Usually, people will be able to identify the cause of their dizziness. However, this symptom may occur unexpectedly or without any clear reason.

The causes of dizziness can range from temporary physical changes to more serious underlying medical conditions, some of which we will detail below.

1. Vertigo Woman holding her head and wondering why am I dizzy
Vertigo or a migraine can cause dizziness.

Many people use the terms "vertigo" and "dizziness" interchangeably.

Although these conditions create similar sensations, they are slightly different.

When someone feels dizzy, they can feel woozy or disoriented. Vertigo, on the other hand, refers to the artificial sensation of movement. Vertigo can cause people to feel as though the environment around them is spinning or tilting.

Vertigo occurs due to the development of problems in the inner ear. Causes of vertigo can include:

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo develops when calcium carbonate particles collect in the inner ear canals.

These canals send information about the body's position and movements to the brain, but the presence of the calcium particles causes the brain to misread the information.

Ménière's disease

This inner ear condition has no known cause, but some scientists believe that it can occur when fluid builds up in the ear canals.

Ménière's disease can develop suddenly and without any apparent cause. It can give rise to vertigo, a ringing or roaring sound in the ears, and hearing loss.

Labyrinthitis

Infections can cause inflammation in the inner ear, or labyrinth. Labyrinthitis tends to develop after a viral infection, such as a cold or flu.

Antiviral and antihistamine medications can effectively treat labyrinthitis. However, parts of the inner ear may sustain permanent damage as a result of this condition.

2. Motion sickness Repetitive motion from being in a vehicle, such as a car, airplane, or boat, can disrupt the structures of the inner ear, causing dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. People call this "motion sickness" or "seasickness." Being pregnant or taking certain medications can increase a person's sensitivity to motion and increase their risk of experiencing motion sickness. The symptoms of motion sickness usually subside away once the person sets foot on solid ground. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today 3. Migraine A migraine is a type of recurring headache that can cause a throbbing or pulsing pain on one side of the head. The American Migraine Foundation estimate that 30–50% of people will experience dizziness during a migraine episode. Sometimes, people experience dizziness before the onset of a migraine episode. Other neurologic symptoms, or auras, can precede the pain of a migraine headache. Auras can affect a person's vision, speech, and motor control. 4. Low blood pressure A sharp drop in blood pressure can cause a brief sensation of lightheadedness. Blood pressure changes can occur after sitting or standing up too quickly. Other conditions that can cause blood pressure changes include: Taking certain medications, such as diuretics, beta-blockers, or antidepressants, can also cause changes in blood pressure. 5. Cardiovascular disease Conditions that affect the cardiovascular system, such as the buildup of plaque in the arteries and congestive heart failure, can cause dizziness. People may experience dizziness or feel lightheaded before or after a heart attack or stroke. If a person has cardiovascular disease, they will likely experience other signs and symptoms, including: irregular heartbeat shortness of breath discomfort or tightness in the chest a persistent cough excess fluid in the arms, legs, or feet fatigue nausea, vomiting, or both 6. Low iron tofu high iron
Eating a diet rich in iron can reduce the symptoms of anemia. Iron deficiency can result in a condition called anemia, in which the body does not have enough oxygen-rich blood. Anemia can cause the following symptoms: dizziness shortness of breath chest pain fatigue Making appropriate dietary changes and taking iron supplements can help treat mild forms of iron-deficiency anemia. People who have a severe iron deficiency may require a blood transfusion. 7. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) Hypoglycemia occurs when blood glucose, or blood sugar, falls below the normal levels. Causes of hypoglycemia include: skipping meals consuming alcohol taking certain medications, such as insulin or aspirin having hormonal imbalances Symptoms of hypoglycemia can appear suddenly and vary in severity. A few of these symptoms include: dizziness or lightheadedness loss of balance fatigue headache hunger mood changes difficulty concentrating irregular heartbeat 8. Autoimmune inner ear disease Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) refers to any condition wherein the immune system mistakenly attacks the inner ear. AIED can cause hearing loss in one or both ears. Other symptoms of AIED include: dizziness tinnitus, or ringing in the ears loss of balance or coordination AIED causes nonspecific symptoms that are similar to those of an ear infection. For doctors to accurately diagnose AIED, they need to take a full medical history, perform a physical examination, and track any additional symptoms. People who have AIED may develop another autoimmune disease that affects the entire body. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today 9. Stress anxious woman closes her laptop
Stress and anxiety are common symptoms of dizziness. Long-term or chronic stress may contribute to the development of significant health problems, such as depression, anxiety, heart disease, diabetes, or immune dysfunction. During the stress response, the brain releases hormones that affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. These hormones narrow the blood vessels, raise the heart rate, and cause rapid, shallow breathing. These responses can lead to dizziness or lightheadedness. Other symptoms of stress include: sweating trembling or shaking headaches chest pain rapid heartbeat difficulty sleeping difficulty concentrating nausea 10. Anxiety Dizziness is a common symptom of anxiety. However, the exact relationship between the two varies among people. Some people may experience anxiety attacks that trigger dizziness, while others might have a sudden onset of dizziness that triggers an anxiety attack. Stressful events, such as an exam or a challenging emotional situation, can trigger anxiety attacks. People may feel dizzy, disoriented, and nauseous during an anxiety attack. Other symptoms of anxiety include: worry restlessness or fidgeting difficulty concentrating sleep problems mood changes irritability rapid heart rate headache sweating dry mouth When to see a doctor Dizziness may indicate a more serious underlying medical condition when it occurs alongside symptoms such as: double vision vomiting fever numbness difficulty moving or controlling the arms or legs headache chest pain loss of consciousness Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Takeaway Experiencing an episode of sudden or severe dizziness can be alarming. However, the dizziness usually resolves on its own and does not require emergency medical attention. Dizziness is a nonspecific symptom that can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as anxiety, stress, or low blood sugar. People should speak with their healthcare provider if they experience severe or recurring dizziness.
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Best 10 foods to boost metabolism

Certain foods contain specific nutrients that increase the body's metabolism. Metabolism is the rate at which the body burns calories and carries out other processes.

By boosting their metabolic rate, people may be able to shed excess weight and reduce their risk of obesity and related health issues.

Read on to discover 10 of the best metabolism boosting foods, along with some other ways to increase metabolic function.

1. Eggs Boiled eggs on a board which are a metabolism boosting food
Eggs are rich in protein and are a great option for boosting metabolism.

Protein-rich foods are amongst the best options for boosting metabolism.

Eggs are rich in protein, with each large, hard-boiled egg containing 6.29 grams (g), making them an ideal choice for people who want to speed up their metabolism.

Protein is one of the most effective nutrients for increasing metabolic rate because the body needs to use more energy to digest it than it does for fats or carbohydrates. Scientists call this energy expenditure the thermic effect of food (TEF), or diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT).

According to some research, people who consumed 29% of their total daily calories as protein had a higher metabolic rate than those who consumed 11% of total calories from protein.

2. Flaxseeds Flaxseeds are seeds that contain protein, vitamins, and other key nutrients. Some people consider flaxseeds a "functional food," which means that people eat them for their health benefits. Eating flaxseeds could help boost metabolism and improve metabolic syndrome, which is a group of conditions that contribute to diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. At present, the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is funding research into the role of flaxseeds for metabolic syndrome. A 2019 study on mice indicates that flaxseeds may boost metabolism. This is probably because they contain good amounts of fiber and protein, along with essential omega-3 fats, antioxidants, and other essential nutrients. The fiber in flaxseeds ferments in the gut to improve the gut's bacterial profile. This process aids metabolic health, and it may protect against obesity. Studies suggest that flaxseeds and their nutrients may also help treat or protect against: Thank you for supporting Medical News Today 3. Lentils Lentils are another functional food that may reduce the effects of metabolic syndrome. A 2016 review of 41 animal studies reports that eating lentils and other legumes, such as beans and peas, can play a central role in preventing and treating metabolic syndrome. Lentils may also increase metabolism because they are rich in protein. They also contain good amounts of fiber to feed beneficial bacteria in the gut. 4. Chili peppers Chili peppers on a board which can help to boost metabolism
Studies suggest that capsaicin can boost metabolic rate. Spicy meals that contain fresh or dried chili peppers can increase metabolism and a feeling of fullness. A compound in peppers, called capsaicin, is responsible for these health benefits and more. A 2015 study reports that eating capsaicin boosts metabolic rate modestly. The research also suggests that the compound can contribute to weight management in other ways by increasing the speed at which the body burns fat and reducing appetite. This builds on existing research, published in 2012, which indicates that capsaicin helps the body to burn approximately 50 extra calories each day. Capsaicin may also reduce pain and inflammation, act as an anticancer agent, and provide antioxidant benefits. As a result, some researchers suggest that the compound may help treat conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Ginger Adding ginger to meals could increase body temperature and metabolic rate, and help control appetite. A 2018 review of studies evaluated ginger's effects on weight loss and metabolic profiles in people who were overweight. It found that the spice may help to reduce body weight and fasting glucose levels while increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol. Ginger also has anti-inflammatory properties, and it may help to reduce nausea during pregnancy and after chemotherapy treatment. 6. Green Tea Green tea has received plenty of attention in recent years as researchers have shed light on its potential health benefits. Several studies suggest that green tea extract (GTE) may increase fat metabolism both at rest and during exercise. However, other research reports no notable effects. Furthermore, scientists cannot guarantee that drinking green tea would have the same results as taking GTE. A small-scale 2013 study involving 63 people with type 2 diabetes suggests that drinking 4 cups of green tea daily can significantly reduce body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist size, and systolic blood pressure. Other proposed health benefits of green tea include: anti-inflammatory effects antioxidant properties antimicrobial activity anticancer effects benefits for heart and oral health 7. Coffee Coffee can stimulate metabolism thanks to its caffeine content. Research reports that caffeine intake has a stimulating effect on energy expenditure and can lead to increased metabolism. However, it is essential to be mindful of total consumption. Learn about how much caffeine is too much, here. Decaffeinated coffee does not have the same metabolism boosting benefits. Also, adding cream or sugar will increase its calorie content, which may work against the caffeine's beneficial effects on metabolism. 8. Brazil nuts Brazil nuts are one of the richest sources of selenium, a mineral that is essential for metabolism, reproduction, and immune function. They also contain protein and healthful fats to make people feel fuller. Selenium is especially important for the thyroid gland, a gland that regulates metabolic function and produces several vital hormones. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), each Brazil nut provides 68 to 91 micrograms (mcg) of selenium, which is more than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 55 mcg per day. People should avoid eating too many nuts, however, as this can cause selenium toxicity. The NIH set upper limits of selenium intake at 400 mcg. Research also suggests that Brazil nuts can improve the cholesterol levels of healthy people. Abnormal cholesterol levels are a marker of metabolic syndrome. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today 9. Broccoli Broccoli may benefit metabolism because it contains a substance called glucoraphanin. Glucoraphanin helps to "retune" metabolism, lower blood fat levels, and reduce the risk of many age-related diseases. Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables may also prevent or slow down several forms of cancer. For more significant metabolism enhancing effects, look for Beneforte broccoli, which contains high levels of glucoraphanin. 10. Dark, leafy green vegetables curly kale containing silicon dioxide on wooden hopping board
Kale is high in iron, which is essential for metabolism. Spinach, kale, and other leafy green vegetables may boost metabolism thanks to their iron content. Iron is an essential mineral for metabolism, growth, and development. Leafy greens are a source of non-heme, or non-animal, iron. Try pairing leafy greens with a source of vitamin C — such as lemon, tomatoes, or winter squash — to increase the body's absorption of this type of iron. Many leafy greens also provide good amounts of magnesium, another mineral that supports metabolic function and plays a role in over 300 processes in the body. Other tips to boost metabolism Eating a healthful diet is essential for regulating metabolism. Other ways to boost metabolic function include: Drinking water According to one small-scale study, drinking an extra 1,500 milliliters (ml) of water daily can decrease body weight and BMI in some people who are overweight. Participants drank 500 ml before each meal. The researchers suggest that this is due to water-induced thermogenesis, where water increases metabolism. Sleep Getting enough sleep is essential for metabolism and overall health. Research suggests that a lack of sleep may be contributing to the trend of increasing obesity and diabetes, which are consequences of metabolic syndrome. According to the National Sleep Foundation, adults should aim to sleep for 7 to 9 hours a night. To improve sleep patterns, try to go to bed and get up at the same time each day. Strength and resistance training Lifting weights regularly allows people to gain and retain muscle mass and to burn fat. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults should perform strengthening exercises 2 or more days each week. A 2018 study on sedentary women found that resistance training increased the overall basal metabolic rate (BMR) for up to 48 hours. BMR refers to the number of calories that the body burns while resting. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary Many foods, including green vegetables, chili peppers, and protein sources, can boost metabolism and help people achieve or maintain a healthy weight. For optimum results, eat these foods as part of a balanced diet. Other lifestyle changes that improve metabolic health include drinking enough water, getting adequate sleep, and exercise activities.
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What to know about nitroglycerin

When something restricts blood flow to the heart muscle, a person can experience intense chest pain that doctors call angina. People often use the drug nitroglycerin to relieve chest pain that angina causes.

Most often, the reason for the decrease in blood flow is plaque formation and narrowing of the arteries supplying blood to the heart.

Nitroglycerin helps to open up the blood vessels and allow blood to flow. People also use nitroglycerin to treat chronic anal fissures.

In this article, we provide an overview of nitroglycerin, including its uses, how it works, and the possible side effects, interactions, and warnings.

What is nitroglycerin, and how does it work? senior man using nitroglycerin spray
A person can use nitroglycerin to relieve angina symptoms.

Nitroglycerin is a medication that treats angina and chronic anal fissures. It works by promoting blood flow.

The body breaks nitroglycerin down into nitric oxide. Nitric oxide causes the smooth muscle within the blood vessels to relax. This allows the arteries and veins to open up, allowing more blood to flow through. Healthcare professionals call this action vasodilation.

During an angina attack, a person will experience intense chest pain. Nitroglycerin will start working within 1 to 3 minutes, but its maximal effect occurs after 5 minutes.

When people use nitroglycerin for anal fissures, the ointment will relax the anal sphincter, which is the muscle tissue around the anus, and lower the pressure in the anus. This promotes blood flow to the area and helps heal the fissure.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Uses Doctors usually use nitroglycerin to treat the pain that angina causes. Narrowing of the arteries that supply the heart with blood is what causes unstable angina. Doctors call this condition coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is the most common type of heart disease. More than 370,000 people in the United States die every year because of CAD. Nitroglycerin allows the blood vessels to open up, which lets oxygen and nutrient-rich blood feed the heart muscle. This action offers immediate relief from chest pain. People can also use nitroglycerin to treat anal fissures. Anal fissures are tears in the skin of the anus. People can get anal fissures from passing hard stools. Similarly to its effects for angina, nitroglycerin as a rectal ointment helps the healing process by stimulating blood flow to the affected area. How to take it The following table lists the different formulations of nitroglycerin. Form of nitroglycerin How to use aerosol solution
packet
pumpspray
tablet dissolve under the tongue ointment
24-hour patch apply to the skin rectal ointment rectal use only Angina When someone is having intense chest pain, it is vitalto resolve this symptom as quickly as possible. People can also take fast-acting nitroglycerin formulations 5 to 10 minutes before doing an activity that may cause an angina attack. The aerosol spray, pumpspray, packet, and tablet are all fast-acting forms of nitroglycerin. Aerosol spray and pumpspray People can use these devices by giving one or two sprays on or under the tongue once a person feels angina pains. They should not inhale the spray. Packet A sublingual packet of nitroglycerin contains 400 micrograms (mcg) of nitroglycerin powder. A person places the contents of the packet under their tongue when angina pains begin. Tablet At the first signs of angina pains, a person should place the tablet under their tongue or between the gums and the cheek. The tablet will dissolve and absorb through the tissues of the mouth. People who use the aerosol spray, pumpspray, packet, or tablet should not swallow the drug. Nitroglycerin will absorb through the mouth tissues. This provides faster relief than swallowing the medicine. People should also avoid rinsing or spitting for 5 minutes after administering the dose. A person can take each of these forms of fast-acting nitroglycerin at 5-minute intervals. If they do not feel relief from the intense chest pain, they can take two more doses 5 minutes apart. If someone has taken three doses of either fast-acting formulations and does not experience any pain relief, they should seek medical attention immediately. There are also two other formulations of nitroglycerin that can prevent angina attacks. These are not fast-acting, and people should not use them to stop an attack when it is happening. Patch Nitroglycerin patches come in doses ranging from 0.1 milligrams per hour (mg/hr) to 0.8 mg/hr. A person places the patch on their skin anywhere except the areas below the knee and elbow. Most people place the patch on their chest. The area should be clean, dry, and hairless to allow the nitroglycerin to absorb across the skin. A person should leave the patch on the skin for 12 to 14 hours and remove it for 10 to 12 hours. People will usually have the patch on during the day and remove it during sleep. Ointment close up of hands with tube of ointment
A person can apply nitroglycerin ointment to the skin twice a day. People can apply nitroglycerin ointment to their skin using a dose-measuring applicator that comes with the tube. A person will measure the desired dose onto the measuring applicator and then place the applicator ointment side down on the skin. They then spread the ointment across the skin. The person should not rub the medicine in but allow the ointment to absorb across the skin. Finally, they tape the applicator to the skin. People take two doses of ointment each day. Doctors will tell people to use the ointment first thing in the morning and then reapply it 6 hours later. Anal fissures The rectal ointment for anal fissures contains 0.4% nitroglycerin. A person will insert the ointment into their anus every 12 hours for up to 3 weeks. To apply the rectal ointment, a person will cover their finger with plastic wrap and squeeze out 1 inch of ointment along the finger. They then insert the finger into the anal canal up to the first finger joint. The person will then smear the ointment around the area. If this is too painful, the person may apply the ointment to the outside of the anus instead. Side effects People may experience many side effects when using nitroglycerin, including: When people take nitroglycerin for relieving angina, they should be in a relaxed, seated position. An individual's blood pressure can drop significantly after using nitroglycerin. If they stand up too quickly after administering the dose, their blood pressure may drop even lower and put them at risk of fainting. The most common side effect of long-acting nitroglycerin is headaches, but this side effect decreases with use. Although the rectal ointment is only put in the anus, a person may still experience headache and dizziness. Precautions and risks Some people may be allergic to nitroglycerin, and doctors do not recommend that people use it if they have a history of allergic reactions to nitroglycerin. Doctors will not prescribe nitroglycerin to anyone with a history of severe anemia, heart attack occurring on the right side of the heart, or increased pressure in the brain. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Interactions Nitroglycerin may interact with certain other medications. PDE-5 inhibitors are drugs that doctors give to treat erectile dysfunction in males. Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra are PDE-5 inhibitors. As with nitroglycerin, these drugs also cause increased blood flow and can lower blood pressure. Doctors do not recommend that people use nitroglycerin with PDE-5 inhibitors, as they can cause fainting if someone is taking them together. Males should avoid using nitroglycerin if they have taken Viagra or Levitra within the last 24 hours or Cialis within the previous 48 hours. Any person using long-acting nitroglycerin cannot take PDE-5 inhibitors. Overdose senior lady holding head in pain
Throbbing headaches can be a sign of a nitroglycerin overdose. An overdose of nitroglycerin may occur when people use PDE-5 inhibitors with nitroglycerin or if they use too much nitroglycerin during an attack. Severe side effects that healthcare professionals associate with a nitroglycerin overdose include: a sudden drop in blood pressure increased heart rate increased blood flow and pressure in the brain throbbing headaches confusion dizziness disturbances in vision Currently, no drug can reverse a nitroglycerin overdose. Doctors can provide care to people experiencing an overdose by giving intravenous fluids and elevating their legs. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary Using nitroglycerin in the appropriate way can delay the serious complications of angina that can include heart attack, stroke, and even death. People may experience side effects with nitroglycerin and should remain seated while the drug is having its effect. Nitroglycerin can interact with medications for erectile dysfunction. Males with angina should report the use of Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra to their doctor because the use of both drugs together may be dangerous. People can also treat anal fissures with nitroglycerin rectal ointment. Side effects and interactions can also occur with topical use of nitroglycerin.
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More women risking heart health through lack of exercise

A new study finds that the number of women in the United States with cardiovascular disease who are not doing enough physical activity is on the rise.
woman lying on a sofa checking out her tablet
Women between 40 and 64 years of age are getting less and less exercise, new research shows.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in the U.S.

The American Heart Association (AHA) estimate that every year the condition kills 400,000 women — approximately the same number of females who die from cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, and diabetes put together.

When variables such as race are considered, the statistics become even more dramatic. The prevalence of heart disease among African American women is much greater than among white women.

Despite this, most cases of cardiovascular disease can be prevented with healthy lifestyle choices, such as exercising and following a balanced, healthful diet.

A new study that researchers from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD, have conducted found that more than half of women with cardiovascular disease continue not to exercise enough, and the number has increased over the past decade.

The results of the study appear in the journal JAMA Network Open.

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Exercise is essential for heart health

The study suggests that more needs to be done to improve physical activity among women with cardiovascular disease who would benefit from increasing their exercise levels — to ensure they experience optimal heart health.

This intervention would also decrease their healthcare costs associated with cardiovascular disorders.

"Physical activity is a known, cost-effective prevention strategy for women with and without cardiovascular disease, and our study shows worsening health and financial trends over time among women with cardiovascular disease who don't get enough physical activity," says Victor Okunrintemi, internal medicine resident at East Carolina University, and author on the study.

The AHA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have similar physical activity guidelines. They recommend that adults do at least 150 minutes of moderate activity a week or 30 to 75 minutes of vigorous activity per week.

The new study found that more than half of women in the U.S. with cardiovascular conditions continue to not meet these guidelines.

Assessing changes in trends over the years

The researchers used data from a 2006–2015 questionnaire by the U.S. Agency for Health Care Research and Quality's Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, which included more than 18,000 women of different races (non-Hispanic white, Asian, African American, and Hispanic) with cardiovascular disease.

The research team looked at the answers collected in 2006–2007 and then compared them with those from 2014–2015.

They found that the number of women with cardiovascular disease not meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines increased from 2006 to 2015, rising from 58% to nearly 62%. They also found trends related to age, race, and socioeconomic factors.

Their findings showed that women between 40–64 years old were the age group that was increasing the fastest for not getting enough exercise.

African American, Hispanic, and women with low-income levels and low education were more likely to not exercise enough.

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Physical activity affects healthcare costs

The study also revealed that women with cardiovascular disease who did not exercise saw an increase in their healthcare costs between 2006–2007 and 2014–2015.

Expenditure was around $12,700 in 2006–2007 and $14,800 in 2014–2015. In comparison, women with cardiovascular disease who did exercise enough spent about $8,800 in 2006–2007 and $10,500 in 2014–2015.

The researchers explained that the study was not focused on cause/effect, but it aimed at identifying 10-year trends in the levels of physical activity among U.S. women, considering variables such as age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors.

"Many high-risk women need encouragement to get more physically active in hopes of living healthier lives while reducing their health care costs," says Erin Michos, lead author of the study and associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

The researchers concluded that healthcare providers need to encourage vulnerable groups, such as older women, women with lower socioeconomic status, and those from minority groups to follow physical activity guidelines.

Also, they say there is a need for additional support for doctors to enable them to support their heart patients to do more heart-heathly exercise, and to share tips to make their activity tasks easier and more enjoyable.

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How much coffee is too much for the heart?

For many people, coffee is the magical brew that kickstarts the day, a much-needed pick-me-up in the afternoon, and sometimes even a well-appreciated digestive after dinner. However, how much coffee is too much? A large new study claims to hold the answer.
three hands golding cups of coffee
How much coffee might increase habitual drinkers' cardiovascular risk?

"What on earth could be more luxurious than a sofa, a book, and a cup of coffee?" So wrote the Victorian writer Anthony Trollope in his 1855 novel The Warden.

Whatever it is that draws people to coffee — be it its taste and aroma or effects as a stimulant — it is undeniable that this is one of the world's most popular beverages.

In the United States, coffee drinking has even been on the rise. Statistic reports indicate that, in the 2018/2019 fiscal year alone, people in the U.S. have consumed almost 26.5 million 60-kilogram bags of coffee.

According to the same reports, this is significantly more than they consumed during the previous fiscal year.

Other statistics show that for 2018, almost half of young adults (aged 18–24) reported drinking coffee, and approximately three-quarters of older adults reported the same.

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Many recent studies have suggested that drinking coffee can bring a number of benefits in addition to enhancing focus and productivity. In fact, researchers have argued that coffee can help maintain brain health, help increase a person's lifespan, and even slow down prostate cancer.

However, as with any food or beverage — even the most nutritious and healthful ones — there is a limit to how much coffee we can consume.

Not only can drinking too much coffee create ill effects in the short-term — some of the symptoms of overcaffeination are headaches, dizziness, and nausea — but consistently having too much of this drink could increase a person's risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

How much is "too much" for the heart? This is the question that scientists at the University of South Australia in Adelaide aimed to answer in their new study, the findings of which now appear in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

The researchers build on previous studies indicating that people with a specific variant of the gene CYP1A2, which plays a key role in caffeine metabolism, metabolize this substance less efficiently. This can put them at an increased risk of developing high blood pressure (hypertension) and cardiovascular disease.

In the new study, the investigators wanted to determine how much coffee would increase the cardiovascular risk of people with and without this genetic variant.

To find out, they analyzed the data of 347,077 people aged 37–73, of whom 8,368 had diagnosed cardiovascular disease. The scientists accessed these data through the UK Biobank.

"An estimated 3 billion cups of coffee are enjoyed every day around the world," explains study co-author Prof. Elina Hyppönen. For this reason, she explains, "[k]nowing the limits of what's good for you and what's not is imperative."

"As with many things," she cautions, "it's all about moderation; overindulge and your health will pay for it."

In their analysis, the scientists looked at how much coffee the participants drank per day, whether or not they had the genetic variant that resulted in slow caffeine metabolism, and how likely they were to develop cardiovascular disease.

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They found that despite the fact that people without the specific CYP1A2 genetic variant were able to process caffeine four times faster than those with it, this did not appear to significantly affect their cardiovascular risk. However, the amount of coffee they consumed per day did.

In fact, all the people who frequently drank six or more cups of coffee per day — the scientists defined one cup as containing around 75 milligrams of caffeine — had a modest increase in cardiovascular disease risk.

"Most people would agree that if you drink a lot of coffee, you might feel jittery, irritable, or perhaps even [nauseous] — that's because caffeine helps your body work faster and harder, but it is also likely to suggest that you may have reached your limit for the time being," says Prof. Hyppönen.

"We also know that risk of cardiovascular disease increases with high blood pressure, a known consequence of excess caffeine consumption," she notes.

"In order to maintain a healthy heart and a healthy blood pressure, people must limit their coffees to fewer than six cups a day — based on our data six was the tipping point where caffeine started to negatively affect cardiovascular risk."

Prof. Elina Hyppönen

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Supplement for joint pain linked to lower heart disease risk

Glucosamine, a dietary supplement that people commonly take to ease joint pain and reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis, may lower the risk of cardiovascular problems, according to a study analyzing health data from over 400,000 participants.
small jar of white capsules
Does glucosamine, a popular dietary supplement, have a preventive effect against heart disease?

Information from the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health shows that about 2.6% of adults in the United States — which equates to 6.5 million people — take glucosamine, chondroitin, or both. These two dietary supplements treat joint pain and strengthen cartilage, respectively.

This statistic makes glucosamine one of the most popular supplements among the U.S. adult population.

Now, researchers from Tulane University in New Orleans, LA, have carried out a large observational study and found that people who take glucosamine may also have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and adverse health events relating to the heart or the vascular system, such as stroke.

The research team, which Prof. Lu Qi from Tulane led, accessed the U.K. Biobank study database to use available data from 466,039 participants. None of these participants had cardiovascular disease at baseline, and they all submitted information on their use of dietary supplements.

Among these participants, 19.3% — or about one in five — said that they took glucosamine when they joined the study.

The study's findings, which appear in the BMJ, suggest that taking glucosamine on a regular basis may help prevent cardiovascular problems. However, the current study is observational, and the authors warn that further trials should test whether there is a causal relationship behind this association.

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Prof. Qi and team looked at the participants' hospital records and, when necessary, their death records over an average follow-up period of 7 years. They noted whether each participant developed cardiovascular disease, experienced any cardiovascular problems — including coronary heart disease and stroke — or died due to cardiovascular disease.

The researchers found that people who had reported using this supplement had a 15% lower risk of experiencing a cardiovascular disease-related event compared with participants who did not take glucosamine. They also had a 9–22% lower risk of developing coronary heart disease, experiencing a stroke, and dying from cardiovascular-related causes.

These associations were independent of modifying factors, such as a person's age, biological sex, body mass index (BMI), lifestyle and diet, and medication and supplement use, for which the researchers accounted.

At the same time, Prof. Qi and colleagues also noted that these associations were stronger in current smokers, who saw a 37% lower risk of heart disease with glucosamine supplementation, than in former smokers and never-smokers, whose risk was 18% and 12% lower respectively.

The researchers hypothesize that if there is a causal explanation, it may lie in certain biological mechanisms that relate to inflammation. For instance, they note that there is an association between glucosamine use and lower levels of C-reactive protein in the body.

Researchers have linked this protein to heightened inflammation. Therefore, glucosamine may actually help reduce that inflammation, which is present at higher levels in smokers than in never-smokers and former smokers.

Another hypothesis is that taking glucosamine may have similar effects to following a diet low in carbohydrates, which studies have also tied to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

The study authors conclude their paper by saying:

"Habitual use of glucosamine supplement to relieve osteoarthritis pain might also be related to lower risks of [cardiovascular disease] events."

However, they also caution that, due to the observational nature of this study, "[f]urther clinical trials are needed to test this hypothesis."

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What to know about omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are present in foods and dietary supplements. They help keep the membranes that surround all cells in the body working well.

There are three types of omega-3 fatty acid:

alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

ALA is mostly present in plant oils, such as chia seeds, flaxseeds, and walnuts. DHA and EPA are mostly present in cold-water fatty fish, such as mackerel, salmon, herring, and sardines.

A person's body can convert small amounts of ALA into DHA and EPA. According to the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), most people in the United States get enough ALA in their diet. Experts have not yet established how much DHA and EPA a person needs.

Possible benefits chia seeds and a spoon which contain omega 3 fatty acids
Chia seeds are a good source of omega-3 fatty acid.

Beyond the basic maintenance of cells in a person's body, initial research has linked omega-3 fatty acids with various other health benefits.

However, a lot of the research that demonstrates these links is in the early stages or relies on experiments on animals.

In general, until scientists conduct further research, it is not clear to what extent omega-3 fatty acids benefit a person beyond the basic maintenance of their body's cells.

The ODS note that studies have found that people who eat fish, which is a key source of omega-3 fatty acids, typically have a lower risk of various long-term illnesses compared with those who do not eat fish.

However, it is not clear whether this is because of the omega-3s that the fish contain or something else. Furthermore, if it is because of the omega-3s that fish contain, it is not clear if a person taking omega-3 supplements will have the same benefits.

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May reduce inflammation

According to an article in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, research has shown DHA and EPA to reduce the process of inflammation, which has links to various cardiovascular illnesses.

However, while these effects were evident in animal studies, clinical trials on humans were less conclusive.

People with rheumatoid arthritis appeared to benefit from taking fish-oil supplements, but there was no clear benefit for people with inflammatory bowel disease or asthma.

May reduce the chance of heart attack

According to the ODS, there is some evidence that taking omega-3 supplements may reduce the risk of a person having a heart attack. However, the ODS note that other studies did not find a link between omega-3 supplements and less chance of a person having cardiovascular issues in general.

A review article in the Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry states that this is a controversial area of research that is still up for debate.

According to the National Centre for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), researchers have shown omega-3s to help lower a person's triglyceride levels. Triglycerides are fats, and if a person has an excess of these, they are more at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

However, the NCCIH point out that medications that contain omega-3s among other ingredients have approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat high triglyceride levels, although the same does not apply to omega-3 supplements.

May help combat obesity

An article in The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry states that research in humans is yet to show omega-3 supplements to help a person lose weight. They may be able to help a person stop putting weight back on, however, although it is not clear precisely how they may do this.

May contribute to infant health

The NCCIH highlight a study that shows that the children of mothers who took a high-dose fish oil supplement were less likely to develop asthma than the children of mothers who took a placebo. However, the NCCIH also note that other studies contradict this finding.

Risks man with headache or migraine holds head leaning against the vehicle window
Side effects of taking omega-3 supplements include nausea and headaches. According to the NCCIH, the side effects from omega-3 supplements are usually mild and might include: The ODS note that if a person is taking anticoagulants, which are drugs that stop their blood from clotting, then taking high doses of omega-3 supplements may lead to bleeding problems. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary Omega-3 fatty acids are an important part of a person's nutrition and contribute to the basic health of all cells in the body. Most people get enough omega-3 fatty acids in their diet to achieve this. A key source of omega-3 fatty acids is fish. There is clear evidence that eating more fish can help reduce the chances of a person developing cardiovascular illnesses. However, there has yet to be conclusive evidence that taking omega-3 supplements has similar health benefits.
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DASH diet reduced heart failure risk 'by almost half' in people under 75

Sticking to a plant-rich diet that can reduce high blood pressure may also lower the risk of heart failure in people under the age of 75.
example of DASH diet with salad and salmon
The DASH diet is rich in fruit, vegetables, and fish, as well as poultry and nuts.

This was the conclusion of a study that a team at Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC, led to assess the impact of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan on heart failure.

They report their findings in a paper that now features in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

According to figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are around 5.7 million adults with heart failure in the United States.

The condition arises when the heart continues to beat but cannot pump blood as well as it should.

The result is that organs and tissues do not get the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly and remain healthy.

"Heart failure is a frequent cause of hospitalization in older adults and is associated with substantial healthcare costs, so identifying modifiable risk factors [for] heart failure is an important public health goal," says lead study author Dr. Claudia L. Campos, an associate professor of general internal medicine at Wake Forest School of Medicine.

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DASH eating plan can lower blood pressure

The DASH eating plan is high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, as well as beans, nuts, low-fat or fat-free dairy, poultry, fish, and vegetable oils.

It is low in saturated fats, full-fat dairy, fatty and red meats, salt, sugary drinks, sweets, and tropical oils such as those from coconut and palm.

Some previous studies have shown that the DASH diet can lower blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein, or "bad," cholesterol.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) promote DASH as part of a "heart-healthy lifestyle" that includes exercising, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, managing stress, not smoking, and sleeping well.

Although much of it is similar to the Mediterranean diet, DASH differs in that it emphasizes low-fat dairy and completely excludes alcohol.

The new investigation follows another that also reported that a plant-based diet could cut the risk of heart failure. However, that study focused on people who were aged 45, on average, while the new one examined older adults.

The researchers analyzed records from The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), which enrolled men and women at six clinics in different universities across the U.S.

DASH effective for those under 75

The participants were aged 45–84 when they joined in 2000–2002. None had any cardiovascular diseases at that time. MESA tracked them from that point, noting any incidences of cardiovascular health conditions, including heart failure.

The analysis used data covering 13 years of follow-up on 4,478 participants. Dietary data came from the participants' responses to 120-item questionnaires on consumption frequency and amounts of various foods and drinks.

The researchers grouped the participants into five sets, each comprising 20% of the cohort, and ranked them according to how closely their eating pattern matched that of DASH. They then examined the incidence of heart failure across the sets of participants.

The results showed that for all the participants, sticking to the DASH eating plan seemed to have little significant effect on heart failure risk. However, when they took out participants aged 75 and over, the researchers saw a pattern.

The rate of heart failure was 40% lower in people under 75 who most closely followed the DASH eating plan, compared with those who followed it the least.

Dr. Campos says that their findings establish a basis for further studies to explore whether adopting the DASH eating plan could effectively prevent heart failure.

"This research showed that following the DASH diet can reduce the risk of developing heart failure by almost half, which is better than any medicine."

Dr. Claudia L. Campos

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5 causes of cold intolerance

People with cold intolerance frequently feel cold when other people are comfortable or even warm. Cold intolerance may only occur in certain parts of the body, such as the hands or feet.

Some people naturally tend to feel colder than others, without any discernible cause. However, cold intolerance can also be a symptom of an underlying medical condition.

In this article, learn about a range of possible reasons for cold intolerance. We also describe when to see a doctor.

Causes of cold intolerance There are many reasons why a person might feel cold all the time, including: 1. Hypothyroidism Woman wrapped up in a blanket wondering why am i always cold
Symptoms of hypothyroidism can include fatigue, depression, and feeling cold.

Cold intolerance is a well known symptom of hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. These hormones help regulate metabolism and temperature.

When the thyroid is not producing enough thyroid hormones, the body's processes tend to slow down.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

A doctor can diagnose hypothyroidism with a simple blood test. Treatment often consists of thyroid hormone replacement.

2. Raynaud's disease

Raynaud's disease affects the arteries in the fingers, toes, or both. These arteries become narrow, which reduces blood flow.

During these episodes, the fingers and toes can turn blue or white. As blood flow returns, the fingers and toes can become red and feel numb or painful.

Cold temperatures and stress can trigger episodes of Raynaud's. Treatment involves avoiding triggers if possible and, for some people, medication or surgery.

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3. Anemia

Anemia occurs when a person does not have enough red blood cells circulating and carrying oxygen throughout the body. Symptoms of anemia, including feeling cold, result from a relative lack of oxygen.

Other symptoms can include:

feeling cold in the hands or feet weakness or fatigue dizziness or lightheadedness trouble breathing an increased heart rate headache pale skin

There are several kinds of anemia. Types that may make a person feel cold include:

Iron-deficiency anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia. It typically occurs due to blood loss but can also result from poor iron absorption.

People who are pregnant or menstruating are at risk of iron-deficiency anemia.

Vitamin-deficiency anemia

Anemia can also result from nutritional deficiency. Low levels of vitamin B-12 and folic acid can lead to anemia, usually from inadequate dietary intake.

4. Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, or just "anorexia," is an eating disorder characterized by weight loss or inadequate weight gain and a distorted body image.

People with anorexia may intensely restrict their food intake, exercise excessively, or purge with laxatives or by vomiting.

Anorexia can cause a person to experience cold intolerance due to inadequate body fat.

Other symptoms of anorexia can include:

weight loss stomach problems, such as constipation or cramping trouble concentrating dizziness or fainting the lack of a period in menstruating women dry, brittle hair or nails weakness poor wound healing intense fear of becoming overweight restricting certain foods or categories of food being secretive about food intake fear of eating in public social isolation

Treatment of anorexia nervosa often involves a multidisciplinary team of doctors, nurses, and nutritionists. A person may benefit from talk therapy in addition to medication and a nutrition plan.

5. Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to the rest of the body. Another name for this buildup is atherosclerosis.

The accumulation of plaque in the arteries makes them narrower, which means that it is more difficult for blood to flow through them.

Peripheral artery disease often causes decreased blood flow to the extremities, creating a feeling of coldness, numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands, feet, or both. In severe cases, peripheral artery disease can lead to tissue death.

Treatment for peripheral artery disease often includes lifestyle changes, such as exercising and quitting smoking. Some people also need surgery.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Do women feel colder than men? Man and woman outside in the cold
Women may feel colder than men, according to research. Research suggests that women may feel colder or have a higher preferred temperature than men. The authors of a 2015 study reported that the preferred room temperature for men is 22°C (71.6°F), while for women it is 3°C higher, at 25°C (77°F). One possible reason for a more significant cold intolerance in females is that they often have a lower resting metabolic rate than men, which means that a female body may use less energy when at rest. A higher metabolic rate can keep the body warmer, while a low metabolic rate may keep someone feeling cold. When to see a doctor If cold intolerance is a new symptom or a person's tolerance for cold is diminishing, it is best to see a doctor. The doctor will ask for a detailed history of symptoms and conduct a physical exam. Depending on the exam results, the doctor may order additional testing, such as blood tests to check hormone levels or blood counts to determine if there is an underlying medical cause. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary Some people tend to feel colder than others; this is not usually an indication of any health issue. However, if a person is experiencing new or worsening cold intolerance, it might be a sign of an underlying condition. Anyone concerned about cold intolerance or anyone who experiences additional symptoms should see a doctor for an evaluation.
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What to know about the Whole30 diet

The Whole30 diet is a 30-day program that aims to remove certain groups of foods, which it claims may harm a person's health. Most people should be able to tolerate the diet, though some people may want to avoid it for several reasons.

Unlike many other diets, the Whole30 diet does not focus solely on weight loss or calorie counting, so it may not be right for people who are only looking to lose weight. Instead, the restrictions include groups of foods that a person can or cannot eat.

The end goal of the Whole30 diet is to reset the body and allow the person to then slowly add foods back into their diet and check for adverse reactions.

Definition People making a fruit salad in kitchen using berries and apples for whole30 diet
The whole30 diet involves eating only certain food groups.

The Whole30 diet is a 30-day program created in 2009.

The basis for the program is to deal with underlying health issues in the body by removing certain groups of foods, which the creators of the diet believe are harmful.

The Whole30 website itself states that the diet helps to cut out food groups that it claims are:

inflammatory gut-disrupting psychologically unhealthy hormone unbalancing

According to the Whole30 program, these potentially harmful food groups include:

dairy sugar grains legumes

By cutting out all of these foods for 30 consecutive days, proponents of the diet believe the body can heal from the underlying issues these foods may cause. In this regard, the diet would act as a reset button.

While not everyone will feel some negative effects of eating each of these food types, the diet eliminates them all at once to allow an individual to find a new baseline, working their way back up from there to establish a suitable permanent diet.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Safety and effectiveness There are no current studies on the effects of the Whole30 program itself, so there may be no way to say for sure whether it works or not. Also, the end goal of the diet is not concrete, so success may be hard to quantify. While the Whole30 diet is not primarily a weight loss program, the Whole30 website claims that over 95% of participants lose weight and improve their overall body composition. Additional benefits the program claims people experience include: more energy sharper mental focus better sleep clearer skin improved mood increased athletic performance reduced cravings for unhealthful foods The website also claims that thousands of testimonials from clients state that the diet helps with conditions that include: This evidence from testimonials is anecdotal, which does not support the idea that the diet will help improve these conditions for everyone. As the diet focuses more on the elimination of food groups rather than individual components, it would be difficult to quantify success or failure with the diet. With that said, the Whole30 diet does eliminate most sources of dietary carbohydrates, such as refined grains and sugars. As such it is technically a low-carb diet, though it does allow for some sources of carbohydrates, such as potatoes. Low-carb diets have research behind them and may help people lose weight and reduce their risk of cardiovascular issues. A study in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine compares low-carbohydrate diets and low-fat diets for their effect on weight loss and cardiovascular risk. Researchers found that when they checked at 3, 6, and 12 months, people who followed a low-carb diet lost more weight than people who followed a low-fat diet. The quantity of harmful fats that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease also went down. Importantly, this study followed up with people after a minimum of 3 months, which is much longer than the 30-day program of the Whole30 diet. On the other hand, a review in the journal PLoS One notes that low-carbohydrate eating may produce similar results as other weight loss diets, and does not appear to have any particular benefit over other forms of dieting. Again, this is with longer-term diets. The researchers also note that in the long term, dietary guidelines should be sustainable and easy to manage. A heavy restriction diet such as the Whole30 diet is not going to be easily sustainable without careful management, so people who use the program should have a good exit strategy and modified diet afterward. Foods to avoid Bottles of syrup on wooden tray
A person following the Whole30 diet should avoid most sugars, including syrups. Unlike other diets that focus on only one aspect of nutrition, such as low-fat diets or calorie counting, the Whole30 diet concerns itself with entire food groups that it sees as problematic. The Whole30 diet sets out strict guidelines for what participants may eat during the program. Participants have to avoid the following foods: Sugars, including natural or alternative sweeteners, such as: Dairy, including all products made from cow, sheep, or goat's milk, such as: Grains in all forms, including: Legumes and beans of all types, including: Soy in all forms, such as: edamame soy sauce miso tempeh tofu soy protein soy lecithin soy oil Other things to avoid are: alcohol in any form added ingredients, including monosodium glutamate (MSG), sulfites, and carrageenan baked goods and junk foods, including everything from pancakes and waffles to chips and ice cream To follow the Whole30 diet correctly, a person can have no cheat days during these 30 days and may not allow these foods into their diet under any circumstances. Anyone who does slip up or has a cheat day would have to repeat the process from day 1. Foods to eat Instead of these foods, the Whole30 diet suggests filling up the person's food intake with other fresh, whole foods, including: high quantities of vegetables moderate amounts of meat, seafood, and eggs plenty of natural, healthy fats some fruits nuts and seeds such as almonds and cashews all herbs, spices, and seasonings coffee, tea, and herbal teas There are also some exceptions to the food groups that the diet eliminates. These include: ghee or clarified butter — the only dairy product allowed on the program green beans, snow peas, and sugar snap peas — the only legumes the program permits iodized table salt all forms of vinegar except malt vinegar fruit juice These foods may technically be problematic foods, but the diet allows for their use. Should I try the Whole30 diet? A person outside having almond nuts as a snack.
A person following the Whole30 diet may want to prepare on-the-go snacks in advance. The Whole30 diet is not a simple diet plan that a person can ease into over long periods. It is more of a 30-day commitment. Because of this, it may not be right for everyone. The diet itself is very restrictive. Additionally, if a person slips up once or has a cheat meal, they have to start their 30 days over again. This alone is a hurdle, as it takes a lot of self-discipline to complete these 30 days. In addition, undertaking the diet can take a lot of time. Because the diet eliminates entire groups of foods, it may take a lot of time to plan and prepare meals for the 30 days. Eating out at most restaurants is not an easy option, given the strict nature of the diet. On-the-go snacks that may class as junk foods are also off limits. This may mean that a person who wants to try the Whole30 diet will need a lot of time to cook and prepare their meals and snacks ahead of time. People who are not ready to commit time to their diet may want to try other methods, such as simple calorie counting. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Takeaway While the Whole30 program may help some people lose weight, it is not the main focus of the diet. The main aim is to give the body a reset, allowing it to recover from the effects of foods the program's creators believe are harmful. In that regard, the weight-loss benefits of the diet would be secondary to the reset it provides the body. The person would then slowly integrate these potentially problematic foods back into their diet one at a time to check for any reactions. It is important to note that the Whole30 diet is extremely restrictive and is not a long-term diet. After the 30 days are up, it is essential to transition to a more balanced, healthful long-term diet than the Whole30 diet.
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How do you prevent type 2 diabetes?

There are steps that people can take to significantly reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Maintaining a healthy weight, eating well, and exercising often are three very effective preventative measures.

According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), over 9% of the population of the United States are living with diabetes. In 2015, the number of people living with prediabetes was over 84 million.

Since diabetes is a growing health concern, many people want to learn about ways to prevent it.

There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. It is not possible to prevent type 1 diabetes. However, there are several steps a person can take to significantly reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

In this article, learn which steps to take to help prevent type 2 diabetes from developing.

How to prevent type 2 diabetes There are three ways a person can help prevent type 2 diabetes: Maintaining a healthy weight Man eating noodles in restaurant smiling and happy preventing type 2 diabetes
Eating a balanced diet can help with maintaining a healthy weight.

One of the most important steps a person can take to help prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes is to reach or maintain a healthy weight.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases suggest that if a person who is overweight loses about 5–7% of their body weight, they can lower their chances of developing type 2 diabetes.

According to the ADA, being overweight can increase a person's risk of:

If a person who is overweight reduces their total weight by just 10–15 pounds, they may reduce their risk of developing these conditions significantly.

However, effectively controlling weight can be challenging. Results are often slow to come and require changes to physical activity as well as eating habits.

Some strategies a person can try to help reach and maintain a healthy weight include:

joining a support group keeping a food journal eating smaller portions drinking plenty of water making a meal plan joining a gym, running club, or yoga class spending less time sitting during the day getting enough sleep

People who want to lose weight should consider talking to their doctor about safe and effective methods.

Eating a balanced diet

Maintaining a balanced diet can help reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It is a crucial part of reaching and maintaining a healthy weight.

Eating a balanced diet does not mean simply cutting calories. Eating a balanced diet involves eating foods rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein, and good fats.

It also means avoiding or cutting back on foods with added sugars and sodium.

Some of the best foods to include in a preventative diet include:

green, leafy vegetables beans non-starchy vegetables fresh or frozen fruits lean proteins, such as fish and tofu nuts and seeds oatmeal and whole grains

Foods to avoid include:

sugary beverages, including energy drinks, sodas, and juices processed meats, such as bacon packaged snacks sweets and desserts

It is a good idea to start with small steps and changes. For example, somebody who regularly drinks soda can try replacing it with sparkling water and lime. Another example is replacing white grains and pasta with whole-grain versions.

Also, try reducing meal sizes and drinking water a few minutes before eating meals. This can help reduce the amount of calories a person consumes at meal times.

Exercising regularly

Regular exercise can help reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Regular exercise can help reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

An essential part of reaching and maintaining a healthy weight is exercising regularly. This has a range of health benefits, including:

improving blood flow reducing the risk of heart disease improving stamina reducing weight providing stress relief improving flexibility

There are several types of exercise a person can try to help prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. These include:

aerobic exercise, such as walking, cycling, swimming, or running strength training using weights or bands stretching exercises, such as yoga or Pilates

A person can also incorporate more movement into their day by using a standing desk, parking farther away from the workplace, and using active transport.

According to the ADA, a person should aim to move or stretch every 30 minutes during the day.

Also, for maximum benefit, a person should aim to do at least 30 minutes of an aerobic activity once per day for 5 days of the week.

People should always speak with a doctor before starting an exercise regime for the first time to discuss safety and risks.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Risk factors Risk factors that a person can reduce include their cholesterol levels and weight. Having higher levels of bad cholesterol and excess weight both increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. People can reduce some, but not all, of their risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Risk factors that a person cannot change include: Age: Older people have a higher risk of developing diabetes than young people. Race: American Indians, African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Mexican Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Asian Americans are at a higher risk of diabetes. Family history: Having a close family member, such as a sibling or parent, with type 2 diabetes increases a person's risk. Gestational diabetes: Women who develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy are at greater risk of type 2 diabetes. Early signs of diabetes Increased thirst is a potential early signs of type 2 diabetes.
Increased thirst is a potential early sign of type 2 diabetes. There are several potential early warning signs that a person may experience that indicate they have diabetes. These include: increased thirst a frequent need to urinate feeling of constant hunger blurred vision fatigue developing darker patches of skin itchiness numbness or tingling in hands or feet cuts that heal slowly When to see a doctor As people age, they should see their family doctor for annual checkups. The doctor will usually order blood work to check for factors such as blood sugar levels, cholesterol, and other health warning signs. At annual checkups, a person can ask their doctor about strategies that help prevent diabetes, especially if they have a family history of the condition. If a person experiences any signs or symptoms of diabetes, it is best to speak to a doctor. This is because diagnosing diabetes early can help keep symptoms under control. Summary Type 2 diabetes is a growing concern for many people. Although there are some risk factors that people cannot change, such as age and family medical history, there are several steps they can take to reduce their likelihood of developing the condition. Maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly can all help reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
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Natural ways to lower cholesterol

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that the liver produces. It is also present in animal-based foods. Cholesterol supports many essential bodily functions, but high levels can lead to health issues.

According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), unhealthful lifestyle choices are the leading cause of high cholesterol. However, genetics, certain medical conditions, and medications can also contribute to high cholesterol.

Having high cholesterol does not cause symptoms, but it can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Doctors can prescribe statins to help lower a person's cholesterol levels, but these medications can cause side effects, such as headaches, muscle cramps, and nausea.

In this article, we explore some natural ways to lower cholesterol without medication. We also discuss what cholesterol is and why high levels can be harmful.

Avoid trans fats girl eating fried breakfast
Eating fried food can raise a person's LDL cholesterol.

Trans unsaturated fatty acids, which people commonly refer to as trans fats, are unsaturated vegetable fats that have undergone an industrial process called hydrogenation, which makes them solid at room temperature. Food manufacturers use trans fats because they are relatively inexpensive and long-lasting.

Sources of trans fats include:

margarine vegetable shortening partially hydrogenated vegetable oils fried foods certain processed and prepackaged foods

Bacteria in the stomachs of cows, sheep, and goats produce natural trans fats. Cheese, milk, and other dairy products may contain modest amounts of natural trans fats.

According to the American Heart Association (AHA), consuming trans fats can negatively affect a person's health in two different ways:

they can raise blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, or "bad cholesterol" they can reduce blood levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or "good cholesterol"

LDL cholesterol can accumulate in the arteries and increase the risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. HDL cholesterol helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream.

According to a 2019 review, low levels of HDL cholesterol are common in people with type 2 diabetes, which increases their risk of heart disease. The authors suggest that treatment should focus on lowering LDL cholesterol levels to reduce this risk.

In a 2017 study, researchers used cell cultures to show that a trans fat called elaidic acid had toxic effects in neuron-like cells. Elaidic acid led to cell death and increased markers of oxidative stress.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Consume fewer saturated fats Saturated fats generally stay solid at room temperature whereas unsaturated fats are usually liquid. Dietary sources of saturated fats include: red meat pork chicken with the skin on butter cheese and other dairy products cooking oils, such as palm oil and coconut oil The AHA recommend that saturated fat should only represent about 5–6% of a person's daily calorie intake. A diet high in saturated fats may raise a person's LDL cholesterol levels. Excess LDL cholesterol can accumulate and form hard deposits in the arteries, which may lead to a condition called atherosclerosis. A 2018 study examined how different dietary fats affected blood levels of cholesterol. The 4-week study involved 96 healthy adults who consumed 50 grams (g) daily of either: extra virgin coconut oil butter extra virgin olive oil Coconut oil and butter predominately contain saturated fat, whereas olive oil contains mostly monounsaturated fat. According to the results, the participants who consumed butter had significantly higher levels of LDL cholesterol than those in the coconut oil and olive oil groups. The study also showed that different types of saturated fat can vary in their effects on cholesterol levels. For example, coconut oil significantly increased the participants' levels of HDL cholesterol whereas butter significantly raised LDL cholesterol levels. However, a 2015 systematic review did not find a direct association between saturated fat intake and risk of death, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, stroke, or type 2 diabetes. Consume more monounsaturated fats Vegetables, nuts, and fish are rich in monounsaturated fats. These fats take the form of liquids at room temperature. Good sources of monounsaturated fats include: avocados nuts, such as almonds, peanuts, and Brazil nuts seeds vegetable oils, such as olive, peanut, sesame, and sunflower oils In a 2019 study involving 119 adults with a high waist circumference, consuming a diet high in a monounsaturated fat called oleic acid resulted in lower LDL and total cholesterol levels than a diet that was higher in saturated fats and lower in monounsaturated fats. Oleic acid had no effect on the levels of triglycerides or HDL cholesterol in the blood of the participants. Eat more polyunsaturated fats lower cholesterol naturally by eating salmon and avocado
Eating foods rich in polyunsaturated fats can reduce LDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Consuming these fats in moderation can reduce LDL cholesterol without affecting HDL cholesterol levels. Dietary sources of polyunsaturated fats include: walnuts fish, such as salmon, tuna, and trout plant oils, such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oils A 2017 review found evidence suggesting that diets rich in polyunsaturated fats from fish oil may prevent some mechanisms of arrhythmia, which is an irregular heartbeat, and promote overall heart health. It is important to balance the intake of omega-6 fatty acids with that of omega-3 fatty acids. Consuming too many omega-6 fatty acids may cause adverse health effects. In a 2018 study, mice that consumed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids had low-grade chronic inflammation that was due to oxidative stress. Eat more soluble fiber Soluble fiber absorbs water to create a thick, gel-like paste in a person's digestive tract. Soluble fiber not only supports digestive health but also lowers levels of LDL cholesterol and promotes overall heart health. A 2017 study investigated the benefits of a high-fiber diet in 69 Asian Indians with higher-than-normal cholesterol levels. The participants who consumed 70 g per day of soluble fiber had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels than those who ate their usual diet. Foods rich in soluble fiber include: vegetables fruits whole grains, such as oatmeal and brown rice legumes beans Soluble fiber lowers LDL cholesterol levels but does not affect HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels. Consuming too much soluble fiber can lead to constipation, bloating, and stomach pain. People should try to increase their soluble fiber intake gradually over time. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Exercise regularly group of men jogging
Regularly exercising can help lower bad cholesterol. Studies show that regular exercise can help lower bad cholesterol levels and raise good cholesterol levels. For example, the results of a 2019 study involving 425 older adults showed that moderate and vigorous physical activity lowered blood pressure, reduced blood sugar levels, and increased HDL cholesterol levels. In a 2015 study involving 40 adult women, participants who followed a 12-week resistance training program had reduced total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol levels compared with those who did not follow the program. The Department of Health and Human Services recommend that adults do at least 150–300 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75–150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity a week for substantial health benefits. A person can spread this activity throughout the week. People new to exercise may want to start with lower intensity activities and gradually build the intensity of their workouts. Performing high-intensity exercises without proper training or supervision can lead to injuries. People can incorporate regular exercise into their lives by walking, jogging, cycling, or doing resistance exercises with light weights. People with cardiovascular disease or other heart problems should consult a doctor before participating in intense physical activities. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that is present in every cell in the body. Although having too much cholesterol can increase the risk of adverse health effects, the body needs cholesterol to build cell membranes and to produce: The liver naturally produces all of the cholesterol that the body needs. However, certain foods contain cholesterol, and other foods can trigger the liver to produce more cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to fatty deposits building up on the walls of arteries, which increases a person's risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. HDL cholesterol collects LDL cholesterol and other fats from the arteries and transports them back to the liver. The liver disposes of excess cholesterol by converting it into a digestive fluid called bile. Although people should aim to have more HDL cholesterol than LDL cholesterol, the NHLBI recommend that adults keep their blood levels of total cholesterol below 200 milligrams per deciliter. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary Cholesterol supports many essential bodily functions, such as cell membrane formation and hormone production. However, having high levels of LDL cholesterol can increase a person's risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. People can naturally lower their cholesterol levels through dietary and lifestyle changes. Replacing trans fats with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can help lower levels of LDL cholesterol and raise levels of HDL cholesterol. Other ways to naturally lower cholesterol include eating more soluble fiber and exercising regularly.
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Cancer treatments: Patients need to know heart risks

Recent research on the health risks that people undergoing cancer treatment face warns that there is a lack of awareness about the risks that some of these therapies can pose to heart health.
doctor speaking to patients
Not enough cancer patients are aware of the potential adverse effects of cancer treatment on their heart.

Investigators from Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia have found that many people who receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy for cancer risk their heart health by having these treatments.

At the same time, the new research shows that most of these people have limited or no knowledge about the cardiovascular risks because their doctors never tell them.

The authors recently presented their findings at EuroHeartCare 2019, a congress of the European Society of Cardiology, which took place at the start of May in Milan, Italy.

"Depending on the type of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, between 1% and 25% [of] cancer patients may develop heart failure due to cancer treatment," warns study author Prof. Robyn Clark.

"Risk," she adds, "also depends on cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking and obesity. Better monitoring of the heart and intervention before, during, and after treatment can prevent or lessen the impact of this cardiotoxicity."

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Cancer patients unaware of risks

The study authors explain that people who experience heart problems following cancer treatment may not do so immediately.

In fact, according to research investigating heart failure risk in people who have undergone cancer treatment, therapy-related heart failure can develop up to 20 years after the treatment has concluded.

In the current study, the researchers looked at the medical records of 46 people who had received cancer treatment at one of three hospitals between 1979 and 2015. All of these people had cardiotoxicity (damage to the heart muscle), and the research team selected them at random.

The investigators found that of these 46 patients, only 11% had received a referral to a specialized cardiologist before beginning chemotherapy, and medical professionals had only referred 48% of them to a heart failure clinic following their treatment.

Prof. Clark and colleagues also note that among the individuals whose records they studied, about 40% were overweight or had obesity, 41% had smoked or were still smoking, 24% used alcohol regularly, 48% had high blood pressure, and 26% lived with diabetes.

Patients miss crucial self-care information

The researchers then looked at the provision of care received by subsets of cancer patients during two different periods: 1994–2011 and 2012–2015. They selected these dates so that they could look at the effect of the publication of the European Society for Medical Oncology's Clinical Practice Guidelines, which appeared for the first time in 2012.

When they compared the provision of care in the two periods, the investigators found that the rate of appropriate heart care did actually increase.

The percentage of people who received a referral to a cardiologist before starting chemotherapy went from 0% to 23%, while the percentage of patients receiving a baseline echocardiogram — a scan that allows doctors to assess heart function — rose from 57% to 77%.

Moreover, the researchers went on to interview 11 cancer patients, of whom seven also belonged to the randomly selected group of 46 people whose medical records the investigators initially analyzed.

None of these individuals were aware of their heart health needs, and while more than half of the interviewees reported developing more healthful eating habits following their diagnosis, none of them had a solid understanding of what a balanced diet should entail.

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Doctors should issue more referrals

Based on all of these findings, the study authors stress the importance of monitoring heart health in people about to undergo cancer treatment and adjusting care to meet each person's needs.

"Monitoring the heart throughout the cancer journey can ensure it is protected. Cardiotoxicity can occur even in people without cardiovascular risk factors since drugs like anthracyclines and trastuzumab are toxic to the heart, so it is an innocent bystander."

Prof. Robyn Clark

Prof. Clark and team also note that doctors should explicitly tell cancer patients about the risks that their recommended cancer treatments carry and advise them on the best ways to minimize heart risks — for instance, by working to improve relevant lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and diet.

However, if a cancer patient does develop heart failure, they can still access helpful therapies as long as doctors keep a close eye on the condition, says Prof. Clark.

The researchers explain that healthcare professionals can identify cardiotoxicity either by using echocardiograms or cardiac imaging or by looking for specific biomarkers. People who may develop or already have heart failure could receive angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or beta-blockers as a treatment.

At the same time, people whose cancer treatments are damaging their heart health could benefit from modified cancer therapies that minimize this harm, if their doctors closely monitor any cardiovascular developments.

"For cancer patients who do develop heart failure, there are clinics that will improve their quality of life, but our study shows many are not referred," Prof. Clark points out.

"Telephone calls to support and monitor those with cancer and heart failure would reduce the burden of hospital appointments, which patients said was a priority," she emphasizes.

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Using coal as a potent antioxidant

Researchers may have found a way to prevent certain medical conditions from overwhelming the body's natural antioxidant system.
Pile of coal
Could coal form the basis of hi-tech antioxidants?

Traumatic events, such as brain injuries, strokes, and heart attacks affect millions of people each year and can be fatal. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists stroke as the world's second biggest killer.

All of these conditions involve oxidative stress, which is a bodily imbalance between the levels of free radicals and antioxidants.

In the case of traumatic brain injuries, the number of free radicals increases, resulting in tissue damage and, potentially, organ dysfunction. This imbalance can also lead to the lasting effects of heart attack and stroke.

Antioxidant therapy is one way to combat oxidative stress. Researchers are still studying its efficacy, but many consider it to be a promising treatment. However, natural antioxidants, such as the enzyme superoxide dismutase, tend to be overrun by free radicals called reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Finding an artificial antioxidant might help the body's natural antioxidants overpower ROS — a new study reports on a surprising source.

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Coal's potential

The answer is coal, according to scientists at Rice University in Houston, TX, the Texas A&M Health Science Center, and the McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center.

This antioxidant derives from graphene quantum dots (GQDs) that the scientists first extracted from common coal in 2013. These quantum dots are tiny semiconductor particles that scientists can manipulate in certain ways. The newest development shows that these dots might help to keep oxidative stress at bay.

The chemists had previously found that adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) to hydrophilic clusters could reduce oxidative stress. One nanoparticle canceled out thousands of ROS molecules.

But coal could provide a much cheaper and more convenient solution. The scientists found that adding PEG to coal-derived quantum dots was equally effective. The team recently published their findings in the ACS Applied Material & Interfaces journal.

Future benefits

The scientists tested the coal dots on live cells taken from rodents. They showed that a number of different concentrations seemed to reduce ROS activity.

They saw a positive effect even when they administered the quantum dots 15 minutes after adding hydrogen peroxide to the samples. Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical that induces oxidative stress.

The researchers extracted quantum dots from both bituminous and anthracite coal. The former are smaller, and the team found them to be less effective as an antioxidant. Anthracite dots, on the other hand, could preserve more cells even at lower concentrations.

But in a living organism, "the smaller ones are more effective," notes Rice University chemist James Tour. "The larger ones likely have trouble accessing the brain as well."

Although scientists will have to do more research into antioxidant therapy, Tour believes his new work will be hugely beneficial in the future.

"Replacing our earlier nanoparticles with coal-derived quantum dots makes it much simpler and less expensive to produce these potentially therapeutic materials," he says. "It opens the door to more readily accessible therapies."

"Working on this project has been quite the eye-opening experience. It has been fascinating to synthesize, characterize, and then test these nanoparticles in vivo and see them work."

Co-lead author Kimberly Mendoza

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